Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Harvard grad and first woman to lead world trade body, has reforms in mind

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala has been appointed the new chief of the World Trade Organization, becoming the first woman to lead the Switzerland-based institution and the first African citizen to take on the role. However, this is not the first time that Okonjo-Iweala makes history.

Born in Nigeria, Okonjo-Iweala graduated from Harvard University in 1976 and then earned a PhD from MIT. She then became the first woman to take on the Nigerian finance ministry and the foreign ministry too. She was also the first female to run for the World Bank presidency, where she spent 25 years.

In October, her WTO candidacy was supported by all geographic regions at the trade body apart from the United States, where the then-Trump administration said it would continue backing the Korean candidate. However, Okonjo-Iweala’s appointment was cleared when President Joe Biden announced a few days ago his support for the 66-year old.

The WTO was established in 1995 with the aim of promoting open trade for the benefit of all. It negotiates and administers rules for international trade and tries to resolve disputes among its 164 members.

But the organization has struggled to prevent trade spats among member states, most notably the United States and China. The Geneva-based body has been without a permanent director general since Roberto Azevêdo stepped down a year earlier than planned in August.

Okonjo-Iweala has acknowledged the need for reform.

“It feels exciting and it feels daunting at the same time. I look forward to the challenge … deep reforms are needed to rebrand and reposition the organization,” she said during an interview with CNN’s Christiane Amanpour.

Okonjo-Iweala said ramping up global efforts to combat coronavirus was also a priority.

“One of … top priorities that I have, that I’m passionate about, is how can trade and the WTO play a stronger role in bringing solutions to the pandemic, both on the health side but also on the economic side,” she told CNN.

Okonjo-Iweala said that while economic recovery was reliant on trade, solving public health challenges also required “good trade.”

Okonjo-Iweala spent 25 years at the World Bank as a development economist, rising to the position of managing director. She also chaired the board of Gavi, which is helping to distribute coronavirus vaccines globally, stepping down at the end of her term in December.

In response to concerns that rich countries are not doing enough to share vaccines, Okonjo-Iweala said that the WTO needs “rules that will allow access and equity for vaccines, and therapeutics and diagnostics.”

“That’s a big issue for me, how do we get the solutions to the present pandemic?” she said during the interview.

Paul Kagame, the president of Rwanda, had expressed worries that developing countries are unable to access adequate vaccine supplies for their citizens.

“Rich and powerful nations have rushed to lock up supply of multiple vaccine candidates,” Kagame said in a Guardian newspaper op-ed published on February 7.

“Worse, some are hoarding vaccines — purchasing many times more doses than they need. This leaves African and other developing countries either far behind in the vaccine queue, or not in it at all,” the Rwanda president added.

Okonjo-Iweala’s appointment has been hailed as a significant achievement by people in her native Nigeria and an #ankaraarmy — referring to the distinctive African print she wears — has already formed online.

One user tweeted: “Hillary [Clinton] had a pant suit army. We are going to create an #AnkaraArmy for NOI! Get ready, the date is February 15th…”-CNBC/CNN


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